10 Key factors for MVNO success explained

10 Key factors for MVNO success explained

What is needed to make a MVNO successful? 10 key factors for MVNO success explained

Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNO) have gained significant traction over the years but what is needed to make a MVNO successful? 10 key factors for MVNO success explained.

The 10 key factors for MVNO success are:


Assets such as existing customer base, brand affinity and distribution channels. Use these assets to create a unique brand positioning and value proposition in order to attract the target segment – use mobile connectivity as transportation to sell existing services.

  • MVNOs can leverage on their existing customer base and brand. Use these assets to create a unique brand positioning and value proposition in order to attract the target segment and use mobile networks as transportation to sell their existing services. One key competitive advantage is that the MVNO has a thorough knowledge of their existing customer segment, allowing them to cater to that segment in a far more personal, relevant way than others can.
  • MVNOs can leverage on their existing distribution channels such as retail stores, online platforms, agents or sales teams, to reach the MVNO segment and simplify the customer acquisition process. MVNOs can utilize the existing customer service infrastructure to provide a seamless customer experience. Reducing costs and improving customer satisfaction.
  • MVNOs can bundle mobile services with their existing products or services, i.e. insurance, travel, or entertainment packages or existing loyalty programs. This creates an attractive value proposition and customer experience/journey.
  • MVNOs can analyze the customer data or their existing customers to identify and target specific customer segments with tailored mobile service plans and marketing campaigns. This can improve customer satisfaction and loyalty while increasing profitability. By analyzing customer usage patterns the MVNO can adjust and optimize network capacity accordingly to improve network performance and reduce costs.
  • The MVNOs can share resources with the existing business i.e. office, IT, staff, etc.


Build partnerships to offer differentiated products and services. Leverage on combined assets and expertise to provide innovative services and offers – with or beyond traditional voice and data services.

  • MVNOs can partner with established brands or retailers to utilize their existing customer base and brand recognition. This can provide MVNOs with access to a large pool of potential customers and help them build brand awareness quickly.
  • MVNOs can leverage the distribution channels of their partners, such as retail stores, online platforms, or sales teams, to reach a wider audience and simplify the customer acquisition process.
  • MVNOs can bundle their mobile services with other products or services offered by their partners, such as, but not limited to, insurance, travel, or entertainment packages. This can create a more attractive value proposition for customers and increase revenue streams for both parties.
  • MVNOs can analyze their partners’ customer data to identify and target specific customer segments with tailored mobile service plans and marketing campaigns. This can improve customer satisfaction and loyalty while increasing profitability.
  • MVNOs can utilize the existing customer service infrastructure of their partners to provide a seamless customer experience. This can reduce costs and improve customer satisfaction.
  • MVNOs can partner with other MVNOs to share resources, use economies of scale to negotiate better rates with mobile network operators, and expand their reach into new markets.
  • MVNOs can leverage digital marketing channels and social media platforms to connect with potential customers, build brand awareness, and drive customer acquisition.


Make your MVNO different and appealing compared to competitors with a distinct value proposition that resonates with the target segments. Focus on specific customer lifestyle, needs and or pain points. Data plan usage, price sensitivity, or unique features.

Crafting a clear and compelling value proposition is crucial for any MVNO seeking to stand out in the competitive telecommunications market. Your value proposition should effectively communicate the unique benefits and advantages your MVNO offers to the targeted segments, convincing them to choose your services.

  • Identify your main target customer: Define the specific customer segment and sub-segments you aim to serve with your MVNO. Understanding their lifestyle, needs, and discission making process, is essential for tailoring your value proposition.
  • Focus on customer or client benefits: How will your services improve their lives or business, save them money, mitigate pain points or enhance their mobile experience?
  • Highlight your unique selling point (USP): Determine what makes your MVNO stand out. i.e. innovative or unique services, exceptional customer support, competitive pricing or a combination of these. Use strong verbs and vivid language to capture attention and convey excitement.
  • Keep it simple: Your value proposition should be clear, easy to understand, and easy to remember. Avoid using technical gibberish or buzzwords.
  • Communicate consistently: Ensure your value proposition is consistently communicated in-house and across all marketing channels, including your website, social media, advertising materials, and customer service interactions. Use storytelling techniques to connect with your audience on an emotional level and make your value proposition more relatable.
  • Measure and improve: Regularly evaluate the effectiveness of your value proposition by tracking customer acquisition rates, churn rates, and customer feedback. Improve your message based on this data and insights. Quantify your benefits whenever possible, using numbers or percentages to demonstrate the impact of your services.
  • Analyze direct and indirect competitors: Conduct a thorough market research to understand your competitors’ offerings, pricing strategies, and value propositions. Create a Value Proposition Matrix which will  help you and your MVNO team to identify the position where your MVNO can differentiate itself or provide better services.


Effectively reaching and connecting with target customers. Understand customer needs, preferences, lifestyle and behavior patterns and tailor your marketing campaigns, messaging and engagement accordingly. Keep it simple.

  • Gather and Analyze Customer Data: Collect and analyze customer data, including demographics, usage patterns, location, interests, and behavioral attributes.
  • Identify Customer Segments: Utilize data analytics to segment the customers into distinct groups based on shared characteristics, such as age, gender, location, usage habits, or lifestyle preferences. These segments should be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive, representing the entire customer base.
  • Develop Customer Profiles: Create detailed customer profiles for each segment, outlining their demographics, needs, preferences, and pain points. These profiles provide insights into the motivations and behaviors of each segment, allowing for targeted services, messaging and marketing campaigns.
  • Tailor Marketing Messages: Craft personalized marketing messages that speaks to and resonate with the specific interests and needs of each customer segment. Use language, images, video, and content that aligns with their preferences and addresses their lifestyle and unique pain points.
  • Leverage Targeted Channels: Utilize the most appropriate marketing channels to reach each customer segment. Consider channels such as social media, email marketing, SMS messaging, in-app notifications, and targeted online advertising.
  • Track and Optimize: Continuously monitor the performance of your targeted marketing campaigns and segmentations. Analyze metrics such as open rates, click-through rates, conversion rates, and customer acquisition costs to identify areas for improvement and optimize your strategies and costs.
  • Incorporate Predictive Analytics: Implement predictive analytics to anticipate customer behavior and identify potential churn risks. This data-driven approach allows for proactive marketing interventions and targeted retention campaigns.
  • Embrace Customer Feedback: Actively seek and incorporate customer feedback to refine your segmentation strategies and improve the effectiveness of your targeted marketing campaigns. Listen you your customers as their insights provide valuable guidance for tailoring your service, messaging and offerings.
  • Continuous Learning and Adaptation: Regularly review and adapt your targeted marketing and segmentation strategies based on evolving customer needs, market trends, and technological advancements. Stay agile and responsive to ensure your marketing efforts remain effective and relevant.


Provide an exceptional customer experience to keep customers and foster loyalty. This encompasses aspects like responsive customer support, user-friendly platforms, self-service, seamless service delivery, addressing the customers needs promptly.

To achieve exceptional customer service, MVNOs have to adopt a customer-centric approach that listens to, prioritizes and address individual customer needs. This approach will not only differentiate you in the market but also drive customer loyalty, advocacy, and ultimately, success.

  • Personalized Service: Treat each customer as the individual they are, understand their unique needs and preferences. Tailor your interactions and offerings to provide value and recognition to make each customer feel valued, respected and appreciated.
  • Response time: Provide timely and effective support through multiple channels, ensuring customers have access to assistance when they need it. Empower customer support representatives to resolve issues efficiently with empathy and knowledge throughout the interaction.
  • Seamless Onboarding: Simplify the customer onboarding process, making it easy for new customers to activate and start using their services without frustration or delays. Provide clear simple instructions, helpful resources, and proactive support throughout the process to minimize friction and encourage continued usage.
  • Easy-to-Understand Payments: Present bills in a clear, concise, and transparent manner, avoiding complex gibberish, small text and hidden fees. If there is a need for small terms and condition text, call it out. Provide the customers with a detailed breakdowns of their usage and charges, and offer flexible payment options to enhance convenience and reduce billing-related issues.
  • Proactive Communication: Keep customers informed upfront about important updates, service changes, and potential issues. Utilize multiple channels to communicate proactively, avoiding surprises and foster trust through open and transparent communication.
  • Self-Service Options: Give the customers the option to manage their own accounts, make payments, and resolve common issues independently through a user-friendly online self-service portal or app. Provide a clear and easy to use interfaces and comprehensive resources to enable customers to take control of their service experience.
  • Reliable Network Performance: Ensure consistent and reliable network performance to minimize downtime, slow data speed and dropped calls. Address network issues proactively and communicate transparently with the customers to maintain service quality and minimize disruptions.
  • Value for Money: Offer pricing plans, service bundles and value that align with customer needs. Consider offering flexible options and promotions to attract and retain customers, ensuring they perceive their service as worth the investment.
  • Transparency and Honesty: Be open and transparent with customers about pricing, policies, and potential limitations. Avoid misleading or deceptive practices, building trust by being honest and upfront in all interactions. If small text is needed in terms and conditions, call them out.
  • Go beyond expectations: Be ready to go the extra mile to resolve customer issues and demonstrate a genuine commitment to their satisfaction. Show empathy, take ownership of problems, and find solutions that exceed customer expectations, fostering positive experiences and build lasting relationships.


MVNOs leverage data analytics to gain deeper insights into customer behavior, usage patterns, and market trends. This data-driven approach helps them optimize their offerings, personalize experiences, and make informed business decisions.

  • Personalized Service: Analyze customer data to understand individual preferences and usage patterns. Tailor service offerings, marketing messages, and support interactions to provide a sense of personalization and value.
  • Customer Support Responsiveness: Monitor customer interactions and feedback to identify areas for improvement in support response times and effectiveness. Implement multi-channel support options to enhance responsiveness. Use chatbots and AI-powered support tools ONLY to optimize response time – not problem solving.
  • Seamless Onboarding: Analyze onboarding data to identify pain points and areas for simplification. Streamline the onboarding process with clear instructions, interactive tutorials, and proactive assistance to reduce friction and improve customer satisfaction.
  • Easy-to-Understand Billing: Present bills in a clear, concise, and transparent manner, avoid gibberish, small print, complex technology terms and hidden fees. Provide detailed breakdowns of usage charges and offer flexible payment options to enhance billing clarity and convenience.
  • Proactive Communication: Analyze customer behavior and preferences to determine optimal timing and channels for proactive communication. Send personalized notifications about service updates, account activity, and potential issues to keep customers informed and engaged.
  • Convenient Self-Service Options: Analyze customer usage of self-service tools to identify areas for improvement and feature enhancements. Develop a user-friendly self-service portal or app that empowers customers to manage their accounts, resolve issues, and access support resources independently.
  • Reliable Network Performance: Analyze network usage data and customer feedback to identify areas of network congestion or performance issues.
  • Value for Money: Analyze customer usage patterns, churn rates, and competitor offerings to determine optimal pricing plans and service bundles. Offer flexible pricing options, targeted promotions, and value-added services to enhance perceived value and customer satisfaction.
  • Transparency and Honesty: Analyze customer feedback and sentiment to identify areas where transparency and honesty can be improved. Clearly communicate pricing terms, service limitations, and potential issues to build trust and manage customer expectations.
  • Willingness to Go the Extra Mile: Analyze customer feedback and support interactions to identify opportunities to exceed customer expectations. Empower employees to go the extra mile to resolve issues, provide exceptional service, and foster customer loyalty. Use the data to identify customers who have had a positive experience with the company and reach out to them to thank them.


MVNO is a margin business and success depend on your ability to operate efficiently. Use your MVNE partner and host operator to minimize Capex. Focus on differentiation and customer value while minimizing Opex and protecting gross margin.

  • Leverage on Mobile Virtual Network Aggregator and Enabler (MVNA/MVNE) Partnerships: Instead of investing into buying or building, maintaining and continuously developing your own telecom infrastructure and platforms, MVNOs can partner with established Mobile Virtual Network Enablers (MVNE) to significantly reduces capital expenditures (CAPEX) and simplify operations.
  • Optimize Network Utilization: Analyze customer usage patterns and network traffic data to identify underutilized network resources. Optimize network capacity allocation and adjust network configurations to maximize efficiency and reduce unnecessary costs.
  • Consider Cloud-Based Solutions: Consider utilizing cloud-based solutions for core network functions and IT infrastructure. Cloud-base solutions offers scalability and flexibility. However, do check the real cost-effectiveness of this, as you are adding an extra on-going costs that lowers your margin. Also be aware, that due to regulation in certain markets you may still need on-premises infrastructure for some customer data and legal intercept.
  • Streamline Business Processes: Automate routine tasks, simplify workflows, and eliminate redundancies to improve operational efficiency.
  • Implement self-service customer portals and apps to in parallel (not instead) to customers support teams to reduce peak hours workload.
  • Negotiate Favorable Contracts: Negotiate favorable terms with MNOs for network access and utilizations, off-peak hours, roaming services, and other essential connectivity components. Seek discounts, volume-based pricing, and performance-based incentives to optimize costs.
  • Optimize Marketing and Sales Strategies. Utilize data analytics to identify and optimize marketing and sale strategies to maximize the return on marketing investments (ROMI).
  • Implement strategies and systems to retain existing customers and reduce churn rates. Develop customer loyalty programs, offer personalized services, and address customer concerns promptly to minimize churn.
  • Embrace Open-Source Technologies: Consider adopting open-source software solutions for various business functions. Open-source solutions can reduce licensing costs and provide greater flexibility compared to proprietary software.
  • Establish clear cost-management policies and procedures across the organization. Encourage cost-consciousness among employees and implement regular cost reviews to identify potential savings opportunities.

Continuously monitor operational costs, identify areas for improvement, and implement corrective measures. Optimize, optimize and optimize to ensure cost-effectiveness remains a priority.


Agility and adaptability is crucial for MVNOs to thrive and maintain a competitive edge in the ever evolving telecommunication sector.

Agility refers to the ability to quickly respond to changing market conditions, customer needs, trends and technological advancements. Adaptability is the flexibility to embrace new strategies, modify operations, and adjust offerings to suit the evolving business environment.

  • Embrace and cultivate a data-driven culture within the organization, empowering employees to utilize data insights to make informed decisions and identify potential opportunities for innovation and adaptation. Regularly analyze customer data, market trends, and network performance metrics to gain a comprehensive understanding of the evolving landscape.
  • Implement a culture of continuous learning and upskilling, encouraging employees to stay abreast of emerging technologies, trends, and customer preferences. Provide training and development opportunities to enhance employee capabilities and enable them to adapt to new challenges and opportunities.
  • Integrate agile methodologies, such as Scrum or Kanban, into project management and development processes. These methodologies promote flexibility, rapid iteration, and continuous improvement, allowing MVNOs to adapt quickly to changing requirements and market conditions.
  • Encourage a culture of experimentation and innovation, fostering a willingness to test new ideas, explore uncharted territories, and embrace calculated risks. Implement a structured process for evaluating and implementing new ideas to drive innovation and differentiation.
  • Cultivate strong relationships with key partners, including MNOs, MVNA/MVNEs, technology providers, and industry experts. Collaborate with partners to share knowledge, access new technologies, and expand capabilities, enhancing agility and adaptability.
  • Continuously monitor and respond to customer feedback through surveys, social media interactions, and customer support channels. Analyze feedback to identify areas for improvement, adapt product offerings, and enhance customer satisfaction.
  • Consider cloud-based solutions for IT infrastructure and core network functions where it makes sense. Cloud can offer scalability, flexibility, and some time rapid deployment capabilities, enabling the MVNO to adapt to changing demands and market conditions. However, check and calculate first, if it makes sense to use cloud services (costs) and your options to move seamlessly from this cloud provider to another.
  • Keep a flat organization and encourage collaboration across departments to foster a cross-functional approach to problem-solving and innovation. Empower employees to make decisions and take ownership of their work, enabling rapid adaptation to changing circumstances. The C-suite of the MVNO should also take calls and input from the customers, especially during peak hours in customer service support.
  • Periodically review and adapt business strategies and operational processes to ensure alignment with evolving market conditions, customer needs, trends and technological advancements. Maintain a flexible and adaptable approach to remain competitive and seize new opportunities.
  • Embrace and cultivate a growth mindset within the organization, encouraging all members of the team to embrace challenges, learn from failures, and view change as an opportunity for growth and improvement.


Mobile Virtual Network Enablers (MVNEs) play a crucial role in the telecommunications industry by providing the infrastructure and support that enable Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs) to offer mobile services without having to invest in their own network infrastructure.

Partnering with an MVNE provides MVNOs with a cost-effective, scalable, and flexible solution for launching and managing their mobile services. By leveraging on MVNE’s expertise and infrastructure, MVNOs can accelerate their time-to-market, lower their investment costs, reach financial break-even faster, focus on their core competencies, and deliver exceptional customer experiences.

Chose an MVNE with a track record and an active R&D. Leverage on the mutual partnership for continuous improvement. Chose an MVNE partner that supports the full life-cycle and ecosystem of your MVNO businesses and who is ready to adapt and scale.

  • Reduced Capital Expenditures (CAPEX): MVNOs can avoid the significant upfront costs of building, maintaining and continuously develop their own network elements and IT platforms by partnering with an MVNE. This allows the MVNO to focus their resources on developing their brand, marketing, and customer service, rather than investing heavily in hardware and software.
  • Faster Market Entry: By utilizing an MVNE’s existing infrastructure and setup, MVNOs can launch their services much quicker than if they had to build their own.
  • Scalability and Flexibility: MVNEs provide MVNOs with the flexibility to scale their network capacity and services as their customer base grows. This eliminates the need for MVNOs to make upfront investments in additional infrastructure, reducing the risk of over-provisioning or under-provisioning capacity.
  • Expertise and Support: MVNEs possess deep expertise in network management, technology and MVNO operations, which they can share with their MVNO partners. This expertise helps MVNOs optimize their performance, troubleshoot issues, and implement new technologies to support their targets more effectively.
  • Cost-Effectiveness: MVNOs can benefit from economies of scale by partnering with an MVNE. MVNEs share their infrastructure and resources across multiple MVNOs, reducing the overall cost per user and enabling MVNOs to offer competitive pricing plans or higher margins.
  • Focus on Core Competencies: MVNOs can focus on their core competencies of marketing, sales, and customer service by outsourcing the telecom infrastructure management to an MVNE. This allows the MVNO to concentrate their efforts on building a strong brand, acquiring new customers, and exceptional customer experiences.
  • Access to New Technologies: MVNEs have to stay at the forefront of technological advancements in the industry. By partnering with an MVNE, MVNOs gain access to the latest technologies, which can enhance their service offerings and attract new customers.
  • Risk Mitigation: MVNEs handle the complexities of network management and operations, reducing the risk of technical issues and service disruptions for MVNOs. This allows MVNOs to focus on their core business and minimize operational risks.


Key strategies for building a strong partnership between MVNOs and MVNEs:


  1. Establish Clear Communication and Transparency:
  • Foster open and transparent communication channels between the MVNO and MVNE teams. This will ensure regular exchange of information, address concerns promptly, and build trust.
  • Establish clear expectations and objectives for the partnership, outlining roles, responsibilities, and performance metrics. This will prevent misunderstandings and ensure alignment.
  • Maintain regular meetings and communication channels at various levels within both organizations. This will facilitate collaboration, problem-solving, and ongoing relationship management.
  1. Align on Strategic Goals and Market Opportunities:
  • Develop a shared vision and strategic plan that aligns the MVNO’s and MVNE’s goals for the partnership. This should consider target markets, customer segments, and product offerings.
  • Collaborate on market analysis and customer insights to identify potential growth opportunities, untapped segments, and emerging trends. This will allow the partnership to jointly address these opportunities.
  1. Ensure Effective Service Level Agreements (SLAs):
  • Establish comprehensive SLAs that clearly define the responsibilities of both parties. This includes network performance metrics, QoS guarantees, and response times for technical issues.
  • Regularly review and update SLAs to reflect changes in business requirements, market conditions, and technological advancements. This will ensure the SLAs remain relevant and effective.
  • Implement robust monitoring and reporting mechanisms to track SLA performance, identify potential issues, and measure the effectiveness of the partnership. This will provide data-driven insights to improve performance.
  1. Foster Collaborative Problem-Solving and Dispute Resolution:
  • Establish clear protocols for handling disputes and resolving issues that may arise during the partnership. This will ensure a structured approach to conflict resolution.
  • Encourage open communication and a willingness to compromise to find mutually beneficial solutions to challenges. This will foster a collaborative problem-solving environment.
  • Consider involving external mediators or arbitration if necessary to reach an agreement and maintain the integrity of the partnership. This will ensure a neutral and impartial approach to dispute resolution.
  1. Promote Continuous Learning and Knowledge Sharing:
  • Encourage regular knowledge sharing and collaboration between the MVNO’s and MVNE’s technical teams. This will help both parties stay up-to-date with technological advancements and industry best practices.
  • Facilitate joint training and development programs to enhance employee skills, expertise, and understanding of the partnership’s objectives. This will ensure both teams are well-equipped to support the partnership.
  • Promote a culture of open innovation and experimentation, allowing both parties to learn from each other’s experiences and successes. This will foster a dynamic and innovative partnership.
  1. Regularly Evaluate and Adapt the Partnership:
  • Conduct periodic reviews of the partnership’s performance, assessing progress against agreed-upon goals, customer satisfaction metrics, and financial objectives. This will identify areas for improvement.
  • Identify areas for improvement, potential synergies, and opportunities to expand the scope of the partnership. This will ensure the partnership remains relevant and effective.
  • Adapt the partnership strategy based on market trends, technological advancements, and changing customer needs. This will ensure the partnership remains competitive and aligned with the evolving market landscape.


Mobile network operators’ (MNO) partnership with MVNOs, is a mutually beneficial arrangement that help both parties grow their businesses and improve their bottom lines. As such, MVNOs should be recognized as key strategic partners.

A strong partnership between the MVNO and its host MNO is a critical factor in their respective successes. By leveraging each other’s strengths, sharing resources, and fostering collaboration, both parties can achieve their business goals, enhance customer experience, and contribute to a thriving ecosystem.

  • Foster Open Communication and Trust: Open and transparent communication is essential for building trust between the MVNO and the MNO. Regular meetings, joint workshops, and open dialogue channels will facilitate information sharing, pro-active problem-solving, collaborative decision-making and foster a strong working relationship. Establish clear protocols for handling disputes and resolving issues that may arise during the partnership.
  • Define Roles and Responsibilities: Clearly define the roles and responsibilities of both parties to avoid ambiguity and ensure accountability. This includes specifying responsibilities for network access, billing, support, and regulatory compliance.
  • Establish Clear Goals and Expectations: Both the MVNO and the MNO should clearly define their goals and expectations for the partnership from the outset. This includes aligning on target markets, customer segments, service offerings, and financial objectives. Clear communication and shared understanding of expectations will set the stage for a successful partnership.
  • Establish Service Level Agreements (SLAs): Implement clear and measurable service level agreements (SLAs) that outline performance expectations, quality of service (QoS) standards, and response times for various aspects of the partnership. This ensures that both parties are held accountable for their commitments. Regularly review and update SLAs to reflect changes in business requirements, market conditions, and technological advancements.
  • Align on Pricing and Revenue Sharing: Negotiate fair and mutually beneficial pricing arrangements for network access, roaming services, and other essential connectivity components. Establish a transparent business model and partnership that incentivizes both parties to collaborate and drive growth.
  • Explore opportunities for joint marketing and sales initiatives to expand the MVNO’s reach and attract new customers. Collaborate on promotional campaigns, distribution channels, and co-branded marketing materials.
  • Establish regular performance reviews and assessments to monitor the effectiveness of the partnership’s performance against agreed-upon metrics and identify areas for improvement. Address any challenges, and continuously refine the partnership for mutual benefit.
  • Foster a culture of innovation and collaboration that encourages knowledge sharing, joint problem-solving, and mutual respect. Encourage collaboration between teams from both the MVNO and the MNO to share ideas, explore new technologies, and jointly develop innovative solutions that benefit both parties and strengthens the partnership.
  • Regularly review and adapt the partnership to address changing market dynamics, customer needs, and technological advancements. Agility and adaptability ensure the partnership remains relevant and successful in the evolving telecommunications landscape.
  • Nurture Long-Term Relationships: Approach the partnership with a long-term mindset, investing in building strong relationships, trust, and mutual understanding. A long-term perspective will foster a collaborative environment and encourage both parties to work towards shared goals.


Author: Allan Rasmussen
Managing director at Yozzo. Allan is a MVNA/MVNE/MVNO specialist with hands-on experience from more than 60 projects in both competitive and greenfield markets. His expertise includes business case development, execution, launch and growth strategies. Advisor and consultant to mobile network operators, MVNA, MVNE, MVNO, National Regulatory Authorities, Government Agencies, Broadcast Companies, TMT Industry Associations, Innovation and Investment Banks.

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